Constitution

International Law

France’s “Islamic Separatism”: Using “Republican Values” Against Itself?

January 28, 2021 Tianjiu Zuo 0

In the very first article of the French Constitution, the nation guarantees that “it shall respect all beliefs.” But before this succinct, 5-word statement, the Constitution states that France shall be a secular republic. The reconciliation between secularism and respect for all beliefs, teeter-tottering over history, has finally come to a head in France. In a state that enshrines Liberté, égalité, fraternité, — liberty, equality, brotherhood — there is understandably public outrage against French President Emmanuel Macron’s proposed legislation to fight back against “Islamic separatism.” France’s journey to secularism has not been a tranquil one. Before the French Revolution, the official religion of France was Roman Catholicism – a faith still very much alive today with little over half of the French population Catholic. But after a struggle with the Catholic clergy, the ‘Separation of the Churches and the State’ law was established in 1905. This law abolished the system […]

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US Law

Balancing Presidential Powers: Appointment of Matthew Whitaker

November 13, 2018 Phil Ma 0

Summary: The appointment of Chief of Staff to the Attorney General Matthew Whitaker as acting Attorney General after resignation of Jeff Sessions has raised questions about the constitutionality of the appointment. Although these questions stem from concern about Whitaker’s position on the Mueller probe, they are nonetheless legitimate, unanswered questions about the constitutionality of the president appointing someone not confirmed by the Senate to an office that answers only to the president. On Wednesday, Nov. 7, 2018, Attorney General Jeff Sessions submitted his letter of resignation at the request of President Donald Trump. Then the President appointed Matthew Whitaker, Chief of Staff to Attorney General Sessions, to become the new acting Attorney General of the United States of America. The next day, Neal Katyal and George Conway III, husband of Kellyanne Conway, wrote an Opinion article in the New York Times claiming that the appointment of Whitaker to the position […]