Articles by Tianjiu Zuo

International Law

China is Full Steam Ahead on Data Privacy

February 19, 2021 Tianjiu Zuo 0

On January 8th, just a week after China’s Civil Code went into effect, the Hangzhou Internet Court heard and ruled on its first data privacy case. In this case, Sun, the defendant, sold more than 40,000 personal information records to Liu, who used this data for advertising. The records contained people’s full names, email addresses, and social media IDs. The procurator (like a U.S. federal prosecutor) determined that this action constituted an offense against the new privacy protections codified in the Civil Code. The Civil Code is a decades-long culmination of legal developments in China. It covers the full scope of civil law, such as property rights, contracts, and family law. But among these traditional pillars, the considerably large section reserved for the protection of personal information stands out. In Chapter Six of Part Four, the Civil Code defines privacy as “a natural person’s peace of life and the private […]

International Law

France’s “Islamic Separatism”: Using “Republican Values” Against Itself?

January 28, 2021 Tianjiu Zuo 0

In the very first article of the French Constitution, the nation guarantees that “it shall respect all beliefs.” But before this succinct, 5-word statement, the Constitution states that France shall be a secular republic. The reconciliation between secularism and respect for all beliefs, teeter-tottering over history, has finally come to a head in France. In a state that enshrines Liberté, égalité, fraternité, — liberty, equality, brotherhood — there is understandably public outrage against French President Emmanuel Macron’s proposed legislation to fight back against “Islamic separatism.” France’s journey to secularism has not been a tranquil one. Before the French Revolution, the official religion of France was Roman Catholicism – a faith still very much alive today with little over half of the French population Catholic. But after a struggle with the Catholic clergy, the ‘Separation of the Churches and the State’ law was established in 1905. This law abolished the system […]

International Law

Opinion: The U.S. Can And Needs To Regain Trust Through Cloud

November 3, 2020 Tianjiu Zuo 0

In July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) struck down the 2016 EU-U.S. Privacy Shield. The Privacy Shield was designed to protect European data transfers to the U.S. With this ruling, one thing becomes clear. The U.S. must respect the rights of foreign citizens to preserve and grow its leadership in the cloud sector. U.S. surveillance regulations like FISA 702 and the CLOUD Act undermine its own economic interests and breed mistrust between the U.S. and its allies. Leading U.S. cloud providers will lose ground because of these regulations. America needs to take a hard look at how it can maintain global trust in its cloud services. Amazon Web Services, Google Cloud and Microsoft Azure, three leading U.S. cloud providers, all fall under the definition of ‘electronic communications service providers.’ This means that they must comply with the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA), enacted to regulate […]